Time Line

This timeline contains the history of Marco's theories.










Eventually Marco pulled ourselves together and made Land(e)scape  as a counter-reaction to our own nonsense architecture.

Sixty Minute Man

After the Architectural Review and Massimiliano Fuksas   recognised Land(e)scape, Marco was invited to the Venice Biennale in 2000, for which Marco designed, produced and built the Sixty Minute Man.

Invitations to the Exivision

Invitations to the Havana Biennale (Quetzalcoatlus, 2000), Florence Biennale (Installation 1:2001, 2001), the New Trends of Architecture in Europe and Japan (2001), Urban Flashes in Taipei and Linz (2001 and 2001), and the Montreal Biennale (Chain Reactor, 2002)

Svein Hatløy

After the 60 Minute Man, Svein Hatløy 'adopted' me and started to open up his thinking of OPEN FORM. He nominated me to the professor position at his Bergen School of Architecture, and thus launched my academic career. 

Chi Ti-Nan

Because of 60 Minute Man Chi Ti-Nan invited me to Taipei, and, step by step, this has led me to the Treasure Hill, Tamkang, WEAK!, Conversations with Chi reinforced the URBAN ACUPUNCTURE (UA) thinking that was linked with his Micro Urbanism.

Vilen Künnapu

He is Estonian architect. Marco had a discussion with him about the power that resides in the city's towers.


OPEN FORM made sense with UA.

Bird Cage

The presentations in Japan resulted in the invitations to the Yokohama Triennale (Bird Cage, 2001)

Power of accident

In Florence, Marco was impressed with the people's spontaneous action, the sense of revolution, and the power of accident.

Started to think of UA

In Bird Cage, Marco started to think of UA as a natural method - imitating bird droppings with seeds. Attacking the industrial city with seeds.


Potemkin was the first designed and built ruin. It was amazing how perfectly people took it, including the local peasants and even the Shinto blessing.

More ruins followed

The Treasure Hill (2003), the Future Pavilion (2005), the CityZen Garden (2006), the T-Factory (2007), the Chen House (2008), the Ultra-Ruin (2013), the Ruin Academy (2010 onwards)..."

Teaching in the Tamkang University

 It was crucial to take forward the RUIN and UA thinking."


Meditative time in the T-Factory was good. From UA + OPEN FORM+RUIN + LOCAL KNOWLEDGE stemmed the 3G CITY.

Mrs Chen

Conversations with Mrs Chen and other LOCAL KNOWLEDGE professors confirmed the validity of the 3G CITY and the UA, and showed me that that they still exist and resist.


Paracity is a biourban organism that is growing on the principles of Open Form: individual design-build actions generating spontaneous communicative reactions on the surrounding built human environment and this organic constructivist dialog leading into self-organized community structures, development and knowledge building.

Working at the SGT

SGT/Sustainable Global Technologies research centre(Aalto University) provided the tools for the multidisciplinary research and design methodology.

The further evolution of the 3G CITY concept

This led to setting up the Ruin Academy.

Focusing on CLT architecture

In 2016, Our two first CLT housing projects were delivered and others are in progress across Finland. Tikku, the micro-apartment building was built. 

Visiting the Orchid Island's

Building the Volongat and visiting the Orchid Island's Yami (Tao) people. In 2017, Marco was appointed Professor at the Bergen School of Architecture and took the students to the Orchid Island.

CLT Wooden Emergency Hospital

C-Lab has been working hard together with Bjørnådal Arkitektstudio and Sjaelso Finland. Designing a solution where one can fast build emergency hospitals on the parking lots of existing hospitals.